Minijax 0.5.7

Hello Mustache

A Minijax implementation of the Mustache example on the mustache(5) man page.

The source code is available at minijax-examples/minijax-example-mustache

Estimated reading time: 10 minutes

Lines of code:

Language                     files          blank        comment           code
Java                             2             15              0             61
Maven                            1              0              0             31
Mustache                         1              0              0              5
SUM:                             4             15              0             97


There is one new dependency in this example:


The “minijax-mustache” dependency is quite small. It does the following:

  • Includes the excellent library
  • Includes a MessageBodyWriter and ExceptionMapper for writing Mustache templates
  • Includes a general-purpose View class for representing views
  • Exports a MustacheFeature that we will use shortly


New to this example is a resource file. The src/main/resources/templates directory includes the demo.mustache file. The contents are taken verbatim from the mustache(5) man page:

Hello {{name}}
You have just won {{value}} dollars!
Well, {{taxed_value}} dollars, after taxes.

If you are new to Mustache templates, I recommend reading the man page. It is short, concise, and well written.

Resource files are quite banal, but there is one important aspect to highlight. Note that the template is in src/main/resources and not src/main/webapp.

In traditional Java EE, you bundle everything into a WAR file. In the Maven standard directory layout, web application resources belong in src/main/webapp.

However, we are not building a WAR. We are building a JAR. Therefore, we do not want or need a src/main/webapp directory. Instead, we put all of our resources in src/main/resources. includes all of the Java code for our application.

Key points:

public class HelloMustache {

As in the previous examples, our resource class includes a @Path annotation.

In Hello World, we did not use a @Produces annotation. In Hello JSON, we used @Produces(APPLICATION_JSON). Here, because we are producing HTML, we use @Produces(TEXT_HTML).

Next, let’s actually render a Mustache template:

public static View hello() {
    final Map<String, Object> model = new HashMap<>();
    model.put("name", "Chris");
    model.put("value", 10000);
    model.put("taxed_value", 10000 - (10000 * 0.4));
    model.put("in_ca", true);

    return new View("demo", model);

This is a Resource Method that responds to GET requests.

We build a model using a standard HashMap.

We build a view which is a combination of the template name (“demo”) and the model. The template name maps to the Mustache file name (“demo.mustache”).

Language snobs will snicker at the verbosity of creating the model. If that’s you, here are a couple of other options:

When we upgrade to Java 9, we will use the new Map.of syntax:

Map<String, Object> model = Map.of(
        "name", "Chris",
        "value", 10000,
        "taxed_value", 10000 - (10000 * 0.4),
        "in_ca", true);

If you are a Kotlin user, you can use mapOf:

val model = mapOf(
        "name" to "Chris",
        "value" to 10000,
        "taxed_value" to 10000 - (10000 * 0.4),
        "in_ca" to true)

And finally, we must register the Mustache feature using the aforementioned MustacheFeature class:

new Minijax()

Now you can run the example:

mvn exec:java -Dexec.mainClass="com.example.HelloMustache"

Now you can view the results:


There is one test to demonstrate rendering the Mustache template:

public void testMustacheTemplate() {
    final Response response = target("/").request().get();
    assertEquals(200, response.getStatus());

    final View view = (View) response.getEntity();
    assertEquals("demo", view.getTemplateName());
    assertEquals("Chris", view.getModel().get("name"));

    final String str = response.readEntity(String.class);
            "Hello Chris\n" +
            "You have just won 10000 dollars!\n" +
            "Well, 6000.0 dollars, after taxes.\n",

Key points:

response.getEntity() returns the resource method return value. In our example, that is the View instance.

response.readEntity(String.class) returns the serialized value. In our example, that is the fully rendered output.

If you are coming from Jersey, there are a couple differences between MinijaxTest and JerseyTest to be aware of.

First, you will notice that we never included a test dependency. The minijax-undertow module includes all of the test scaffolding. MinijaxTest executes simulated requests completely in-memory, much like jersey-test-framework-provider-inmemory.

Second, the behavior regarding “entities” is somewhat different.

getEntity() returns the resource method return value directly.

readEntity() can be called with one of three possible values:

If called with the original entity class, then the entity is returned directly (identical to getEntity()).

If called with InputStream.class, then the entity is serialized to a byte array using the standard JAX-RS serialization flow.

If called with String.class, then the entity is serialized to a String using the the standard JAX-RS serialization flow.